Started Oct 02, 2018 03:09PM UTC   •   Closed Dec 31, 2019 11:59PM UTC

Papua New Guinea (PNG): If electoral violence occurs, what will be the types of incidents and tactics employed?

Definition of Electoral Violence

Electoral violence is defined as 10 or more fatalities occurring in the 6 months before through 3 months after Election Day reported in credible open source media reports (for example, from sources such as BBC, Reuters, and AP). The fatalities must be reported as being specifically related to the election, electoral processes, candidates, parties, electoral issues, or election-related demonstrations.

Definitions of Types of Incidents/Tactics

Crimes Against Humanity are those acts of violence committed on a scale and orchestration that international transitional justice mechanisms can be engaged to prosecute the perpetrators; scale defined as 500 or more fatalities or 1000 or more injured.

Shootings are injuries resulting from the use of firearms, where 10 or more are injured.

Strategic Displacement is the deliberate and violent dislocation of individuals from their homes for the purposes of voter suppression, where over 500 people are displaced.

Physical Assaults are physical and weapon beatings, stabbings, and projectiles on individuals or groups of individuals at events, resulting in over 100 injured.

Sexual Assaults are rapes or other forcible sexual attacks, threshold of 10 or more incidents.

Political or Electoral Property Damage or Destructionincludes candidate and political party offices, candidate or electoral officials’ homes, vehicles, warehouses with electoral materials, registration and polling sites; 5 or more incidents reported.

Violent Protests are street demonstrations with violence perpetrated by either the protesters themselves, political opponents of the protesters, or by security forces’ responses to the protests. Threshold of 1 or more documented, intentional injury must be reported in 3 or more separate protests.

Bombings are one or more EV-related bombings resulting in at least 10 fatalities. 'Bombings' are defined as the use of explosive devices by non-state actors, including improvised and conventional devices.

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